Lodz is a voivodeship town located in the borderland of Wysoczyzna Łaska and Wzniesienia Łódzkie, in central Poland, in the area of headwaters of Bzura and Ner. The third most populous town in Poland – 742 thousand residents.
The first mention of the village Lodz in the document comes from 1332. The status of the town was granted to Lodz in 1423, and until the end the 17th century it was a property of Wrocław bishops and it had agricultural character. At that time it became a local retail and craft centre. After the II Polish Partition (1793), Lodz got under the Prussian seizure: since 1807 it belonged to Duchy of Warsaw and since 1815 to the Congress Kingdom of Poland established in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna. At the turn of XIX and XX century, it became the largest industrial centre of the Congress Kingdom of Poland: an intense growth of the textile industry took place at that time, modern enterprises and banks were established (also a rapid population growth was recorded). In the interwar period, it was one of the main centres of the textile industry, and after the World War II, the second centre of the scientific and literary life after Cracow.
The modern Lodz is the centre of the textile, chemical, machine, electrotechnical, food, paper, leather goods, haberdashery, construction materials industries and the centre of investments of foreign capital. It is one of main centres of the higher education in Poland, where 27 universities function (including 7 state-owned ones), among others: The National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre in Lodz where such persons started their careers like: Jan Machulski, Andrzej Wajda, Krzysztof Kieślowski and Roman Polański. The row of the streets of Piłsudski – Piotrkowska – Kościuszki/Zachodnia all the way to the Palace of Poznanski and the Manufactory being located behind it (former premises of the empire of the textile manufacturer Israel Poznański) is considered as the cultural centre of the town. Each year there are several festivals here; there are several dozen museum, many theatres, the Philharmonic Orchestra, cinemas, art galleries and fashion shops on the area. It is worthwhile to notice, that in 2010 Lodz ran for the title of the European Capital of Culture 2016, however it was not qualified for the second stage of the competition.
The modern Lodz is a very attractive town for tourists, there are among others aqua park Łódź-Fala, Centre Manufaktura, zoo, botanic garden, palm house, Rudzka Góra and numerous Parks on its area. Museums, cafés and hotels are located in renovated palaces, tenements and factories. Lodz owes its unique charm to Art Nouveau, which prevailed in architecture at the beginning of the 20th century. The smooth lines of stone buildings, openwork metal balconies, decorative styles and still preserved mosaics and stained glasses in many houses enrapture visitors. There are also many interesting historic buildings in the town, which are interesting in historical, cultural and architectural terms and date back to XVIII-XIX c.