The Nobel Prize is granted every year in many fields for people from entire world who in the special way were deserved for and about it probably everyone knows. However not many people know that the famous award is probably a result of the great love of its founder to the baroness von Suttner.
Motives for funding an award
Nobel leaded a solitary life, creating one’s “explosive” inventions, but when in the older age felt need of the company and help, for announcement he met the baroness. Bertha – the name of the lady he had for the correspondence and of running a household – shaked the heart of the elderly gentleman and although she got married for the baron, as the widow she again visited the Nobel. Than under the influence of her strong views and being active in direction of strengthening the peace, the Nobel made the regulation in the will so that interest on its capital is allocated as the award for politicians and acting in order to strengthen the peace scientists.
Rules of granting the award
Nobel Prize is granted every year since 10 of December 1901 that is the day of Nobel’s death. Prize is being granted in five fields. From physics and chemistry a Swedish Royal Scientific Academy is awarding a prize in Stockholm in the field of physiology and medicine Karolinski Institute, Literary Prize is granted by Swedish Academy of Literary, there are also Economic Prize and Prize for Institution acting for the peace. At present an award is a medal and an amount of about 10 millions Swedish crowns donated to the researches. The Prize is given personally by the king of Sweden. In the wide circle of winners there is also a few eminent Poles which deserved oneself on scientific, literary and political field.
One by one awards were given to:
*Maria Sklodowska-Curie (1903 and 1911) – outstanding Polish learned from physics and chemistry fields, the first woman studying on Sorbonne and at the same time the first and the only woman honored with two Nobel Prizes. She is an author of the theory of the radioactivity and a discoverer of elements polonium and radium. She contributed in the process for treating cancer with the method of radiotherapy.
*Henryk Sienkiewicz (1905) – award in the field of literature, receiver for the entirety achievements. Sienkiewicz is an author of many well-known in entire world novels, among others The Trilogy and Quo Vadis. The majority of his work was translated to many languages, also to Japanese and Arabic.
*Wladyslaw Reymont (1924) – this Polish prose writer received the Nobel Prize for the novel “The Peasants” – four volume saga described the country environment, its traditions and the culture. Well-known is also his novel “A promised land”, an excellent image of the Lodz industrial environment.
*Czeslaw Milosz (1980) – Polish poet honoured with a prize for the entirety of the artistic work, at the same time he was a translator, translated also Shakespeare’s works. Was rewarded with the honourable title Fair amongst Nations of World.
*Lech Walesa (1983) – the Polish politician of the “turning point” years, the trade union activist, the leader of the Solidarity, the president of Poland.
*Wislawa Szymborska(1996) – the Polish poet and the essayist, awarded for the poetry which with the ironic precision lets the historical and biological context to appear in fragments of human reality.
Mentioning Polish Noble Prize Winners on should also be said about Jozef Rotblat – physicist and radiobiologist, honoured with a prize in 1995 for the establishment and active activity in the movement of scientists of Pugwash, uniting scholars of both political sides in the fight for the liquidation of weapons of mass destruction. An award the scholar is sharing with the organization. Jozef Rotblat admittedly spent the half of his life abroad, but of coming from argument and preserving the Polish tradition and excellent knowledge of the Polish language it is possible to rank him among the circle of Polish Noble Prize Winners.