The Old Town Hall in Torun
The oldest part of the town hall is the tower from 1274 its beauty constitutes typical Gothic ornamentation. At present her height amounts to 40m in contemporary times it constituted the left luggage office for archive records, the armour and the costliness as well as prisoner was located there. In our times the Old town town hall is a location for the District Museum, in which apart from fine inner lives to admire it is possible among others collections of the Gothic art (sculptures, the painting, a unique collection of wonderful stained glass, and aka), Torun handicraft (among others forms of gingerbreads, intarsia work), Torun coins, the painting (among others presenting great sizes of insults making the II Torun Peace). In the Royal Room, from 1454 commemorated with stay almost of all Polish kings and with death of one of them – of Jan Olbracht, the oldest gallery of portraits of Polish kings is found, and in the large Bourgeois Room outstanding portrait gallery of the Torun patriciate from XVI-XIX centuries.
The Old town town hall in Torun is one of the most outstanding achievements of bourgeois medieval architecture in the field of Europe. It is a Gothic building from XIII/XIV century, repeatedly rebuilt, determining a central point of the Torun old town. The town hall was built on the plan of the rectangle, with the inner courtyard. Right at the eastern and south meeting point of wings a four-sided town hall is situated, resembling flandry’s tower watchtowers. Once bread benches were situated on the ground floor “ rich stalls” and Sukiennice. In north-east part of the object an ancient courtroom and holding the urban scale are situated. The first floor was for fine cells, at one time richly decorated rooms, dilapidated during the fire in 1703. In the Old town town hall are a so-called Large Bourgeois Room and a Royal Room, in which Jan Olbracht died on 17 June 1501. The second floor was built on 1602-1605 and it served as the arsenal. There also a library which blushed in 1703 at that time an entire town hall underwent damage which the reconstruction lasted many years. At present his appearance is an effect of conducted works in I half of the XVIII century After the II World War in the town hall a District Museum was established which exists to today. In 2003-2005 a restoration work were being carried on, thanks to which they restored tower former brilliance, they reconstructed maswerkowe painting decorations, an observation deck was restored, the clock etc. In museum was gathered among others collections of the Gothic and perpendicular art, XIVth centuries stained glass, collections of the medieval and modern handicraft of Torun and the modern and modern painting.
Defending walls in Torun
One of the old towns of Poland which aspires to many opinion polls is Torun. It is well-known in the arena of European tourist attractions. One should recall that is entered on the List of the World Legacy UNESCO. Apart from that it is being classified to 7 Wonders of Poland in terms of the multitude of perfect and ancient monuments. One of recognized to this category are Walls of Torun. They constitute the longest section which is being stretched along the Vistula River. One should add that this only 1/4 of the part of the primitive wall which counted 4 kilometers. Saved till present times fragments together with different elements of the medieval and modern fortification system could be found among others along the southern and north stretch of the Podmurna Street and in surroundings of the square after a Dominican monastery complex and St Nicholas Church.
History is stating that medieval urban walls stayed into majorities undressed by Prussian in 1873-1889, mainly in the eastern, west and north part of old town team. Torun which was divided in three urban planning individuals among which they were ranking: The Old Town, The New Town and a Castle of the Teutonic Knights were surrounded with defensive system. That protection consisted in building the double protection, what in practice meant the existence of the low wall from the outside and high wall from the inside cities. A segment of curtain walls was an additional element with the wet moat between them (only from the side of the Vistula the wall was single). The visual variety of all walls, towers and gates was made conditional on used ornaments. Mainly were it ceramic ornamental friezes as well as painted motives on plastered blendes.
Individual segments of walls were being embellished enforcing rhombic arrangements of dark bricks “zendrowka”. The principle of decorating the fortification was supposed to emphasize apart from the wealth, above all the power of the city amongst attacking. The medieval approach towards construction of walls was conveying the superiority of ideological character. Because the wall constituted with symbol of the city, determined its limits, inside which living according to established top-down principles and legal norms was under way.
Tenements on the old town
The Torun Old Town was also honoured in 2007 when it was recognized to one of the 7 Wonders of Poland. The market and the town hall are classifying on the third place in terms of the most beautiful places in world, which ranking organized National Geographic Poland. In order not to stay baseless one should depict the beauty of the Old town town hall in Torun. For first he is standing in the middle of the Old town Market and he is one of biggest, most wonderful buildings of this type in Europe. His uprising is dating back at the end of the XIV century what is marked that he had been created in the period of the top development of the medieval Old Town of Torun.
The complex of houses of Torun burgesses is unique both in the scale of the country as well as Europe; is the only because of best kept and reflecting the ancient, medieval city. Torun as the large Hanseatic merchant city, developed a few sorts of tenements, of which the size and the internal spatial arrangement were made conditional on their function. Tenements from XIV-XV centuries were built in brick. They were Gothic buildings, mainly about 3 window axes and 3-4 storeys, at least came up much bigger, 2-trakts, returned with peaks to the street, about high roofs, covered with the red roof tile.
Artus manor house in Torun
Artus manor house in Torun is an imposing neo-Renaissance building built in the noon part of the Old town Market in 1889-1891. The facade of the building is from three storeys, outside neo-Renaissance motives are references to the primitive Renaissance-Gothic building which stood in this place i.e. the Artus manor house appearing among others hanged turrets, ogival windows. The present building is taking the place of three medieval parcels where once stood the first manor house, built in 1385-1386. There the II Torun Peace in 1466. Building had the rich painting decoration of the facade, repeatedly was rebuilt until at the beginning of the XIX century surrendered of demolition. In 1826 in this place the other Artus manor house was built about the modest classical facade which was also demolished. Soon a present building was made. Today the ground floor is donated to commercial cells, whereas remaining floors are for cultural aims.
The special attention of that manor house is returning to big, semicircularly finished windows, two corner turrets with pointed helmets, under which coats are seen of arms of Brandenburg and Empires of Prussian, in the middle, at the top above the cornice arms of Torun. As a result of the restoration on the vault of the entrance hall eclectic paintings from 1907 were discovered which were painted after the II World War. They are showing the most important buildings of the city and historical theatres, e.g. portraying the tourney, the polychrome of the unknown at present of building, killing the dragon by St George; perhaps it is reference to the primitive Artus manor house. On the floor an among others nice decorated, fine Large Room as well as different rooms are situated: Small, Mirror, Silver and Last. Today is among others a Centre of the Culture “Artus manor house” and Torun chamber orchestra.
House and Monument of Copernicus in Torun
The house of the outstanding astronomer is occupying two Gothic tenements by the Copernicus 15/17 Street. These buildings are a probable place of the birth of Copernicus. However to today discussion lasts (mainly amongst Torun historians) about the real place of his birthday. The tenement belongs to standard buildings of Toru called “Granery-house”, serving once as stock aims and residential. She is being ranked among the circle of the most beautiful Gothic bourgeois objects in the area of north Poland. To today many of her elements of XIV century behaved. The richly ornamented front elevation dates back from the XV century. At present in tenements is a unit of the District Museum called the Museum – House of Copernicus. On 25 October 1853 in order to commemorate a birthplace of the outstanding astronomer on the Old town Market a monument to Nicholas Copernicus was uncovered. The monument was made of bronze has height of 2,6m. Is introducing the dressed astronomer holding the professorial gown and holding in the left hand the astrolabe, and with the finger of the right hand showing the sky. In 2003 a thorough renovation of the monument was carried out from chance of 150 anniversary of its uprising.
Church of the St John Baptist and St John Evangelist
Church of the St John Baptist and St John Evangelist in Torun is a Gothic brick temple, which history reaches the XIII century. In the XV century they granted the building ultimate, kept to today shape. At that time a massive tower of the church was built, a row of side chapels as well as a corps with a nave was increased. At present the church regarded as one of the most outstanding example of Gothic architectures on Chelmno area. The Temple has the form of the three-aisled hall with side chapels and with the lower chancel. Into the corps (from the western side) partly a huge four-sided tower is set. Within the church it is possible to admire: Gothic paintings from the XIV c.; sculptures; brown gravestone of Johann’s mayor von Soest and his wives (the XIV c.); Gothic baptismal font; low relief with introducing to St Maria Magdalena lifted by angels (the XV c.); hanging Marian candlesticks from 1580; perpendicular images; numerous baroque and rococo altars; XVIII centuries pulpit; neo-Gothic stained glass. In 1500 biggest in Poland bell Dei Tube was cast, which to today is on a tower. A church of the St John Baptist and St John is an ancient parish church of the Torun old town, from 1935 smaller basilica, and from 1992 cathedral of the Torun diocese. Place of probable baptism of Nicholas Copernicus and the burial of the heart of the king of Jan Olbracht. From 2005 gradual renovating the elevation of the church lasts.
St Jakub’s church
St Jakub’s church in Torun is being ranked among most beautiful and largest Gothic churches in Poland. Built in 1309-1350 on New Town Market, in the arrangement of the three-aisled basilica, with the chancel and side chapels. At one time he was a parish church for the new town of Torun. In I half of the XIV century a monastery of Cistercian nuns received the law of the patronage of the church, and then of Benedictine nuns. In the XVI c. he served evangelicals. The church has a lot of decorative elements and its inside is hiding the valuable collection of monuments, so as: XIV centuries crucifix; XIV centuries of the painting wall; Maria’s figure with the Baby from the XIV c.; simultaneous Passion image around about 1480-1490; organ brochure of the around 1611; baptismal font; image the Last Judgement of the around 1603; altars from the XVIII c.; pulpit of the around 1770; e.g. crucifying from 1634; neo-Gothic stained glass. During the North War (in 1703) Swedish armed forces robbed from the church two greatest bells (so-called Thornan) at present is in a department in Uppsali in Sweden. The church tower is sticking up to the height of 49 m but the roof covering it comes from the II half of the XV century. At the church systematically examinations and conservator’s treatments are being conducted above treasured monuments, and renovation works of the architecture of the object.
Bydgoszcz City outskirts
Bydgoszcz City outskirts in Torun, beside the Old Town it is place with the most filled up monuments in the city. The district is situated on the right-bank side of the Vistula River, there are among others an Urban Park from 1817 with the restored bench of Schiller, with elements of architectural details and the sculpture; the oldest zoo-botanic Garden established in 1797 with the rich harvest of plants, the domestic and foreign animals. On his area is also XVIII centuries small manor house, the wooden Langnera villa of the from 1900, the tomb of the founder of the object of Johann Gottlieb of Schulz and the obelisk monument from 1797; tram depot from the end of the XIX c.; wattle-and-daub building from the beginning of the XX c., once boarding house “Zofijowka” which among others Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz lived in; connected objects around fort with Torun; seats of consulates of different states; stop of the horse tram “Mushroom” – architectural object of the around 1843; Rybaki i.e. an ancient fishing settlement about medieval traditions; and many buildings in the modernist style.
Towers of Torun
Till the today in Torun nine medieval towers behaved, performing defensive functions once. A well-known Uneven Tower built in the XIV century, owing its name for 1,40m derivation from the perpendicular. Ensuing, as straight, 15m tower built in of system of walls. The tower was built on sandy base therefore soon after coming into existence started tilting, right up until the moment of reaching more long-lasting land. In the XIX c. a smithy and living place for armourer were located in it. At present there is a café and a stand with souvenirs. Different Torun towers are among others a Monstrance raised in the XV c. by the Podmurna Street; Dovecote from the XIV c. – tower built on the plan of the rectangle around hipped roof, richly ornamented, has 19.5m of the height high; a kitten Head from the end of the XVI c., at present in the tower is an Institute of Polish of the UMK school of languages; Crane from I half of the XIV century. The tower apart from the defensive function performed also a commercial function.
Palace of Dambski
Palace of Dambski in Torun is a baroque residence from the end of the XVII c. belonging once to the family of Dambski. The palace was made on frameworks of two Gothic tenements by the Zeglarski Street on the old town. The facade of the residence is covered with stucco decorations presenting plant-flower motives besides it is possible to admire the richly ornamental portal. The palace is one example from few kept to today of the Torun baroque adornment. At the beginning of the XIX century a Gdansk Hotel was located in it, in 1920-1924. State Police, and with time a Society of Art seized the building. After 1945 the object was handed down to University of Copernicus at which the Department of Art was put up. Different baroque residences of Torun are: the Fengera palace from 1743 and the palace of Meissner from 1739.
Church of the Assumption
Church of Assumption in Torun from XIII-XIV centuries is one of three Gothic temples kept in the Torun old town. Originally he held in monastery of Franciscans, in the XVI c. went in the hand of Protestants, then he belonged in order of Observants and from 1830 is a parish church. It is a three-aisled building, of brick, the asymmetrical hall doesn’t have the tower, the topped elevation is three octagonal turrets, windows are narrow and slender. The inside of the church has the height 26.75 m and it is covered with starry vaults, a worship of the Gothic equipment was preserved, among others sculpture of the Christ from the XIV c.; wooden oaken choir stalls from the XV c.; fragments of stained glass from XIV c.; six wings of the ancient altar; perpendicular crucifix from the beginning of XVI c.; wall paintings from the XIV c.; of high artistic class epitaphs of burgesses; main part of the organ brochure from the beginning of XVII c.; mausoleum of Swedish Anna’s Waza princess; late Baroque altars; neo-Gothic stained glass from the turn of XIX and XX c. Church of Assumption in Torun is playing a significant role for the development of the Gothic architecture of the Pomerania.
Uneven Tower in Torun
It is the medieval urban tower which own name owes to the considerable deviation from the vertical (1.40 m). The uneven built tower stayed in the XIV c. as the straight line, 15m set in the system of curtain walls and placed on foundations tower four-walls, but not finished till the end of wall from the side of the city. Through holes in her side walls ran the guard gallery linking it with curtain walls, whereas the lack of the inner wall facilitated drawing the ammunition. In the Middle Ages of sandy ground on which the tower was placed, under the influence of its weight sands already slid causing at the same time tilting of tower till the moment, until it was based on more long-lasting land.
Manor house of St George
St George manor house belongs to one of most often frequented monuments of this city. The Gothic building is located in the Podmurna Street at Owy 4/6 and is connected with the Tower, with which one team forms. It was a summer house of St George Brotherhood, built on the area międzymurze old town, most probably of ruins of the Teutonic castle. One should recall, that on adjacent międzymurze, all the way to the present building of Youth Community Center, located was a shooting range of the Plug Brotherhood of Strzelecki where also games and championships took place.
At present the moat is being used for the organization of outdoor parties. St George guild was dissolved in 1842 and then the manor house was converted into flats. Possibility of tourist touring St George landed estate which was refurnished in years 90. Can surprise because now there is a seat of the Society of the Interaction with Twin Cities of Torun, as well as the Union Vistula river Cities. The building normally isn’t opened for touring. Here among others office spaces, seminar-exhibition rooms and hotel rooms are situated, in the basement, in the reference to the tradition, a wine bar was put. However, when apart from the worship of the fortification of all kinds, historic buildings our passion is a wine tasting, we won’t regard the tour to this street as the wasted time.